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  • Dear Readers!

    There are some things in life that are unavoidable simply because it is impossible to foresee them. Other things though could have been prevented if those involved had been perhaps a little more mindful and taken that all important look ahead. Would the Titanic have hit the iceberg at full speed, if Captain Smith and his crew had seen the ice before it was too late? Very unlikely. They had received ice warnings but the ocean was calm and everyone was fine on board the ship. The majority of the passengers were in good spirits – right up until the collision happened. We humans are in a pretty similar position in the 21st Century. We have received warnings about the impending effects of climate change and we have been told that supplies of natural resources are already running low – and yet we are still sailing at full speed towards a head-on collision. Despite the fact that the UN recently officially confirmed that the world’s population will have reached 10 billion people by 2050. 10 billion who will all want to live as comfortably as we Europeans already do today with our 22-tonne consumption of raw materials per capita per year. China, for example, currently only consumes 11 tonnes per person per year. We continue, for the most part, to turn a blind eye to the fact that our planet simply does not have enough raw materials for such a scenario and – even if there are sufficient supplies of some materials – it would not be particularly smart to continue to mine and consume them in such large quantities if the problems of climate change are to be overcome. 

    Maybe human nature lies at the root of the problem. Our lives run in a straight line – from when they begin, to when they end. Linear thinking is in our genes so to speak. And this is precisely how we have always developed and made our products since we used the very first axe. From the idea at the beginning, to using the product, all the way through to the final moment when the product is broken and can no longer be used. There is no afterwards. If a sustainable economy is to be created, however, it is high time that this line is transformed into a circle.

    Practicable solutions to solving our supply problems have been around for a long while now. All around the world, people have been carrying out research work to find new technologies and better systems to enable raw materials to be recovered so that they can be reused. Recycling must finally do what its name implies, i.e. create loops so that all raw materials can be returned to production cycles. Economic growth and the consumption of raw materials must become separate from one another. A few major steps must be taken before that is possible though. Firstly, an ecodesign directive needs to be introduced across Europe that not only places importance on energy efficiency (as is the case at the moment) but also on raw material efficiency and the recyclability of products. Secondly, far more money needs to be invested in researching, developing and setting up more and better sorting and recycling facilities to ensure the recovered raw materials are of the highest possible quality. And thirdly, politicians need to create incentives to encourage industrial businesses to use more recycled raw materials in their production processes. Digitalisation and e-mobility, in particular, need huge volumes of raw materials. The most environmentally friendly source – one that also allows us to remain independent – is recycled raw materials.

    Our steamship is still more or less intact but it continues to sail towards a head-on collision with Mother Nature. It is not too late to change course, though, if we reach the right conclusions and take some mindful and far-sighted steps towards more and better recycling. There are plenty of reasons to be optimistic – quite a few of which can be found in this issue. 


    Ludger Rethmann

A valuable raw material

Phosphorus is a nutrient that is vital for all life on Earth. Over the years, it has become more and more difficult to get hold of the supplies needed by the agricultural and industrial sectors – especially as Europe has to import practically all of its requirements. Both the limited availability and the poor quality of the virgin raw material is forcing us to find ways to recover phosphorus so that it can be reused. Sustainable phosphorus recovery systems are, therefore, playing an increasingly important role. The German government has set out in law that phosphorus must be recovered from municipal sewage sludge and returned to production cycles from 2029 onwards.

REMONDIS’ TetraPhos® process

It has been a long while since sewage treatment plants were considered to be simply a waste disposal facility. For many years now, they have been operating as innovative recycling plants – recovering water, energy and minerals. Thanks to a process patented by REMONDIS, the company is now able to recover many different types of marketable recycled raw materials and energy from sewage sludge. During the first stage of the process, the sewage sludge undergoes thermal treatment. 

Phosphorus is a finite raw material – many countries are dependent on imports, including the whole of Europe.

The phosphate in the ash is dissolved in diluted phosphoric acid during the second stage of the process. The raw material is then recovered and cleaned in a number of different steps. Thanks to this system, RePacid® phosphoric acid can be produced for manufacturing phosphates. RePacid® is so pure that it is of a higher quality than the raw material from natural resources. It does not contain any heavy metals or pollutants, both of which can be found in imported phosphate rock. Moreover, this process produces iron and aluminium salts, which can be used to eliminate phosphates at the sewage treatment plant – closing another important material life cycle. Other products include gypsum and the mineral-depleted ash for the building supplies industry.

A comparison: recovering and recycling all the phosphorus from the volumes of sewage sludge produced in Germany every year is equivalent to the carbon footprint of 27 million trees.

  • TetraPhos® – The advantages of state-of-the-art recycling technology

    • Cost effective: when used to treat standard municipal sewage sludge, this process does not cause additional costs.
    • Legally compliant: it more than fulfils the rules set out in the amendment to the Federal Sewage Sludge Ordinance [AbfKlärV] which stipulate that 80% of the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash must be recovered
    • Environmentally friendly: high quality secondary raw materials are recovered; this reduces CO2 equivalents (compared to conventional production processes) and ensures the plant has a good ecological footprint
    • Nutrients & pollutants safely separated: the phosphoric acid is a fully marketable and commonly used secondary raw material. It is of a higher quality than the raw material from natural resources.

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